These educational guides cover a number of the common conditions treated by physicians at PSA. These guides should be used for informational purposes only. For any specific information on conditions or treatment you need to speak to your primary care physician.
A circumcision is a procedure to surgically remove the foreskin from the penis. This is most often done shortly after birth, but sometimes a circumcision is done later in a child’s life, even in adulthood.
Continent Urinary Diversion
Hernias and Hydroceles
The testicles begin to develop in the abdomen. In most boys, they move down into the scrotum before birth. As this happens, some of the lining of the abdomen (called the peritoneum) comes down a tube with the testicle. In most boys, the tube that forms the connection between the peritoneum and the scrotum is closed at birth; but in some boys it remains open, forming a pocket. If fluid produced in the abdomen goes into the pocket, then it is called a hydrocele. About 1 in 3 newborn boys will have a small hydrocele; most of them close on their own. If the bowel goes into the pocket, it is called a hernia. Both hernia and hydrocele cause swelling in the scrotum or lower groin. In girls, swelling due to the hernia occurs in the pubic area or lower abdomen.
Hypospadias is a birth defect of the penis. The urethral opening, the hole where the urine comes out, is not in the normal position; it develops on the undersurface of the penis rather than at the tip.
Orchiopexy is a surgical procedure to move testicles from the abdomen or groin into the scrotum. Before birth, the testicle moves from the pelvic area down into the scrotum. In some boys, this does not occur and it is called undescended testicles. This may require more than one operation depending on the position of the testes and any other associated problems.
Varicocele and Varicocelectomy Repair
MIC Key Feed Tube Care
The body holds urine in the bladder, a muscular sac, and empties it through the urethra, a narrow passageway leading outside the body. A small tube called a catheter can be inserted through the urethra to help drain the urine.
Interstim Therapy is an implantable neurostimulator that produces mild electrical pulses that are delivered via the lead to an area near the sacral nerve to help normalize neural activity from the bladder or bowel to the brain.
Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common bacterial diseases in children. Girls are more likely to get a UTI than boys, especially after the first few months of life because of the short urethra (tube leading from the bladder to outside of the body). Girls ages 2 to 6 are at the highest risk. Risk also increases if the child is born with a problem in the urinary tract.
Urine is produced in the kidneys. It travels from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. Once the urine enters the bladder, it should remain there until voiding (emptying the bladder) takes place.
To view the forms listed, you will need Adobe Reader. Please bring your completed forms with you to our office at the time of your visit.